Both Houses of Parliament are subject to the same process of legislating. Each bill must go through the same steps within each House. Once an account has been adopted, it is deemed to be legislation.

Two types of Bills that are called money bills and ordinary are presented in the Parliament (also called public members’ bills or government bills). Although both are subject to the same procedure and are passed through the same stages of the House, they differ in a variety of ways.

The legislation introduced by the Parliament may also be classified into four types:

Ordinary Hills deals with anything that is not related to financial issues.

The money hills concern issues of finances, like taxes and public expenditures, among others.

Financial hills are also a concern for economic matters (but are distinct from bills). 

Constitution amendment legislation deals with amending the clauses that are in the Constitution.

The Constitution provides distinct processes for the adoption of the four kinds of bills. The rules for normal bills, cash bills, and financial bills are described here.

Ordinary Bills

Five stages must be approved by a bill prior to when it can be law:

First Reading

A bill of ordinary procedure can be introduced in any House of Parliament.

A minister or another member can introduce a bill of this kind. A member who would like to bring the bill needs to seek permission to introduce the bill in the House. If the House allows the introduction of this bill, then the sponsor introduces the bill by reading its title and its objectives. The bill is not discussed. Occurs at this time. After that, the statement is released in the Gazette of India. If the law is made public in the Gazette prior to its introduction, permission from the House to present it isn’t required. The introduction, as well as its publication in the Gazette, is an initial reading.

Second Reading

In this phase, it is at this point that the bill undergoes not just the general but also the specialized examination and takes on its final form. This is why it is the most important step during the process of enactment of legislation. Actually, the process involves three sub-stages, namely the general discussion stage, the committee stage, and the consideration stage.

Stage of General Discussion:

Bills printed on paper are given to all members. The specifics aren’t discussed, but the underlying principles and the provisions are.

At this point at this stage, the House may take any one of the four options below:

(i) It could consider the bill immediately or at a later set date;

(ii) It can send this bill to a specific panel of the House;

(iii) It can forward this bill to a joint committee comprised of both Houses and

(iv) It can distribute the bill in order to stir public opinion.

A Select Committee is comprised of members from the House, and the bill has been drafted, along with a joint committee consisting of members of both two Houses.

Committee Stage

The standard method is to forward the bill to a committee selected by the House. The committee thoroughly reviews each clause. It is also able to amend its provisions, however, without altering the fundamentals behind the legislation. After the examination deb, ate, and report, the committee sends the bill to the House.

Consideration Stage

The House, after getting the bill back from the committee on selection, examines the provisions of this bill clause-by-clause. Each clause is debated and then voted upon independently. Members can also propose amendments, and if they are accepted, they are then included in the bill. 

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